Unconquerable Ayodhya, the kingdom of Kosal
By: Bharat Itihaas
The description of Ayodhya in Ramayan is beautifully tendered into verse by Mr. Griffiths, who was the Principal of the Banaras College in the late 19th century. He writes, “Her ample streets were nobly planned and streams of water flowed to keep the fragrant blossoms fresh, that strewed her royal road. There many a princely palace stood in line on level ground. Her temple and triumphal arc and rampart banner crowned. There golden turrets rose on high above the waving green of mango groves and blooming trees and flowery knots between. On battlement and gilded spire, the pennon streamed in state, and warders with the ready bow kept watch at every gate.”
The kingdom of Kosal was ruled by King Dashrath who is believed to be 56th descendents from Manu. His 3 wives Kaushalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi lived intheir respective palaces. Shri Ram was born at the Kaushalya’s temple, which is now termed as the Ram-janmbhoomi.
In the Brahmaand Puraan, Ayodhya is described as holiest of the 6 holy cities. Maharshi Vyaas refers to the story of Ram in the Vanopakhyaan of Mahabharat. Thus the city of Ayodhya and Shri Ram have been held in veneration by the residents of this land for centuries. Almost 200 years after Alexandar, during Mauryan rule, when Buddhism was flourishing, came the Greek King Minander. He embraced Buddhism and pretended to be a monk. He invaded Ayodhya and destroyed the temple on the Janmsthaan site. Soon he was defeated and killed in the battle by Raja Dhyumatsen of the Shrung Vansh, and Ayodhya was liberated.
The janmsthaan temple was reconstructed by King Vikramaditya. History knows of 6 different Vikramadityas. Historians have different opinions of which of them constructed the temple. Some say it was Vikramaditya of Ujjain who defeated the Shakas in 56 BC and after whom the Vikram Samvat is named. Others attribute the re-construction to Skandgupt who also called himself Vikramaditya and built the temple in late 5th Century AD. However, it is generally accepted as P Carnegie mentions in his Historical Sketch of Faizabad that Vikramaditya’s main clue in tracing the ancient city where the river Saryu and the shrine still known as Nageshwar Nath, which is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is also generally accepted that Vikramaditya constructed about 360 temples in and around Ayodhya. The tradition of veneration to Shri Ram has continued in the Hindu society in one form or another. The earliest known inscription to testify this fact is the Nasik cave inscription during the Satvahan dynasty. The celebrated Sanskrit dramatician Bhaas identifies Shri Ram with his Archanavataar.
Evolution of the tradition of worship of Shri Ram as an incarnation of Vishnu is evident in the early Rama-shrine inscriptions. The 4th century inscriptions at Ramtek (Madhya Pradesh), the 423 AD inscription at Kandhar (Afghanistan), the Chalukya inscriptions in 533 AD at Badami, the Mamallapuram inscriptions in the 8th century AD, Amba Maata temple near Jodhpur in 11th century AD, Ram temple at Mukundpur (Rewa, MP) in 1145 AD, Hansi inscriptions in 1168 AD, Rajiv Lochan Temple at Rajim in Raipur (Chhatisgarh) are some of them.
In 12th century, at least 5 temples existed in Ayodhya. They were, Guptahari at Gopratar-ghaat, Chadrahari at Swarga dwaar Ghaat, Vishnu hari at Chkrateerth Ghaat, Dharmahari at Swarga-dwaar Ghaat, and Vishnu temple, on what is known as the Janmbhoomi site.
Mehmood Gaznabi looted and destroyed the temple of Somnath and went back. His nephew Salar Masood advanced in the direction of Ayodhya. On 14th June 1033, Masood reached Behraich, 40 km from Ayodhya. The people united under the leadership of Raja Sohail Dev. Sohail Dev’s army attacked Masood, defeated his army and killed Masoon himself. Abdul Rahman Chishti writes in the biography of Masood, titled, “Meerat-e-Masoodi”.
“.. maut ka saamana hai, firaaq soori nazdeek hai, hinduon ne jamaav kiya hai, inka lashkar beintahaa hai, sudoor nepal se pahaadon ke neeche ghaghara tak fauz mukhalik ka padaav hai. Masood ki maut ke baad ajmer se Muzaffar Khan turant aaya par wah bhi maar diya gaya .. Arab Iraan ke har ghar ka chirag bujha hai ..”
(It is trial with death, but the destination is near. Hindus have deployed armies in huge number from faraway Nepal’s mountains to the basin of Ghaghra river, there armies stand. After the death of Masood, Muzaffar Khan came from Ajmer but he too was killed. Every house of Arab and Iran has lost a son in this battle.)
Published: Friday, May 6, 2011, 2:21 IST
By Francois Gautier | Place: Mumbai | Agency: DNA
One hopes that the people of India are not blind to the utter cynicism of some of its politicians. The way they are efficiently and ruthlessly killing the whole Lokpal movement with the help of deceit and slander is frightening. All the while, Manmohan Singh and Sonia Gandhi, whose party is not only the main recipient of corruption but has actually institutionalised it, throw decoys at us with declarations of ‘zero tolerance of corruption’.
It is funny how this government is hell bent in preserving what is corrupt, untruthful, inefficient – as symbolised by the deal they have made with Karunanidhi that they will not touch his family – and fanatic about destroying what is free of corruption and is prosperous.
Sonia has been on a personal vendetta against Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi for a long time. She had a useful tool in Teesta Setalvad, who, it is now discovered, has bribed witnesses, filed false affidavits, and committed repeated perjuries in court. Teesta’s usefulness is nearing an end as she may soon land up in jail, so the Congress has now found another willing tool in Gujarat police officer Sanjiv Bhatt to implicate Modi in the post-Godhra riots.
The government has subverted its investigative instruments such that the CBI goes after Modi even as it closes its eyes to the wrongs that chief ministers of the Congress or its allies, such as the DMK, are openly doing.
For example, the CBI requested the judiciary to drop the case against Jagdish Tytler, who was seen by innumerable witnesses leading mobs to murder Sikhs, while it is going all guns blazing against Modi, who at best was caught off guard when the riots in Gujarat broke out in 2002, or at the worst, delayed in calling the army. But did not Rajiv Gandhi do the same thing (“When a big tree falls, the earth shakes,” he had said) after his mother was murdered by her own bodyguards? Rajiv also delayed calling in the security forces.
It is illogical that the legal instruments of Indian democracy are used to pin down the CM of India’s most lawful, and prosperous and least corrupt state, which impresses even non-BJP tycoons such Ratan Tata, when a Lalu Prasad was allowed to loot Biharand keep it in the most desolate state because he was an ally.
Is it logical today that the Indian media only highlight the 2002 Gujarat riots, carefully omitting the fact that they were triggered by the horrifying murder of 57 Hindus, 36 of them innocent women and children, burnt in the Sabarmati Express? Riots of that intensity do not happen in a day; they are the result of long-term pent-up anger and a spark – like the killing of Hindus, whose only crime was that they believed that Ram was born in Ayodhya.
It is widely known that the dreaded Khalistan movement in Punjab was quelled in the ’80’s by supercop KPS Gill in a ruthless manner by a number of ‘fake encounters’ that killed top Sikh separatists. This was done under a Congress government, both at the Centre and in Punjab. Rajiv was the PM then, but he was never indicted. This is so because terrorists have no law and they kill innocent people; and sometimes ruthless methods have to be used against them.
Why is Sonia going so single-mindedly against Modi? Because, he seems to be the only alternative to her son Rahul Gandhi becoming prime minister in the next general elections. We should give credit to Sonia for her cunning and ruthlessness.
It is no good being a Hindu in Sonia Gandhi’s India. It is better to be a Quattrocchi, who was exonerated by the CBI. Or a terrorist like Sohrabuddin from whose house in Madhya Pradesh 40 AK-47 rifles, and a number of live hand grenades and bullets were confiscated, who was declared “Wanted” in five states with 40 cases registered against him. Then you stand a chance to be protected by the government of India, while those who have at heart their country’s integrity go to jail.
Sonia has achieved such terrifying power, a glance of her, a silence, just being there, is enough for her inner circle to act; she has subverted so much of the instruments of Indian democracy and she controls such huge amounts of unlisted money that sooner or later this ‘karma’ may come back to her under one form or the other.
Date – 05.06.2011
Appeals to Protest Nationwide
A Press Release by Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad’s General Secretary
Umesh Dutt on 5th June,2011
Attack on Baba Ramdev Undemocratic : ABVP
Declaring central government’s attempt to suppress Baba Ramdev’s strike as tyrannical and anti-democratic Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad’s General Secretary Umesh Dutt has called for a Nation-wide protest. Vidyarthi Parishad shall carry on agitation throughout the country against the Central Government’s move today as well as tomorrow.
The Use of Police force against Baba Ramdev’s follower-activists by Govt.is a clear indication of Govt.’s intention to misuse power endowed on it to suppress anti-corruption movement waged against it. Congress’ topmost leaders’ names are involved in the black-money scam and Government of India is clearly trying to safeguard their interests.
Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad firmly believes that the entire Govt, including Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Prime Minister M.M Singh being involved in corruption have opted for a way of escapism by manipulating the law as they are only interested in running their government.
Parishad clearly asserts that such a move cannot suppress people’s voice and that Govt has to pay a huge price for doing so. Parishad incites all the anti-corruption forces to come together to form a collective voice and fight against such anti-democratic practices.
It also declares that the youth of India under the leadership of ABVP will carry on an agitation which will be made stronger in a course of time.
As previously declared by ABVP 10,00,000 students will actually come on the roads to protest against corruption on 27th of July and on 9th August “Brshtachariyo Satta Chodo” (dethroning corrupt politicians) movement shall begin.
STATEMENT OF Dr. SUBRAMANIAN
SWAMY, PRESIDENT OF JANATA PARTY
The crack down in Ramlila Grounds in in the dark hours of the night today signals the beginning of the end of the UPA government. Such panic reaction
of any government in history has only foretold its downfall. The UPA government instead of cracking down on crooks, hawala operators, and illegal foreign bank account holders,has instead swooped on an unarmed Swamiji and world renowed Yoga teracher who had wanted effective action against the corruption making India look like a tin pot dictatorship in a Banana Republic. But since the UPA government has now written its own death warrant, the democratic minded anti-corruption forces should rejoice in this foolishness as the silver lining in this dark cloud reminiscent of the Emergency.
PTI / Sunday, June 5, 2011 14:58 IST
Condemning police action against Baba Ramdev and his supporters “in strongest terms”, Uttar Pradesh chief minister and BSP supremo Mayawati today requested the Supreme Court to order a probe as “justice cannot be expected from the Centre” in the issue.
Mayawati termed the crackdown at the Ram Lila Maidan as “inhuman”, “undemocratic” and “condemnable”.
“Our party condemns this in strongest terms”, she said at the beginning of her speech at the day-long conference of BSP’s Karnataka office-bearers here.
Mayawati made what she termed as a request through the media to the Supreme Court to take “special note” of the developments and issue direction for independent and separate probe into the issue by National Human Rights Coomission, National Commission for Women and National SC/ST Commission.
“In addition, our party requests the honourable Supreme Court to order a judicial enquiry or whichever probe it deems necessary””, Mayawati said, adding, heavy punishment should be given to the guilty so that such “goondaism” is not unleashed on anybody sitting in dharna in any part of the country.
She said BSP was seeking the apex court’s intervention because “whatever happened” at the Ram Lila Maidan was at the direction of the Central Government, from which “justice cannot now be expected” in this case.